Wide Practice of foreign languages in business shop signs in Somaliland.

Author: Ahmed Muse Ismail. Ahmed is a lecturer, also a member of the Somali Study Center at the University of Burao, concurrently, he is the head of the Education Department of Postgraduate and public relations officer, at UoB.


This study explores the material written on shop signs in urban areas in Somaliland, particularly foreign words that are widely visible in public places. The practices of foreign names in business places became an issue across the world, in particularly the colonized countries. Thus, this study tries to understand the factors that influence practicing foreign language written on shop signs in Somaliland. It allows us to focus deeply on the use of English words or a mixture of words on shop names in Somaliland Business places. The ethnographic research design was used to describe, analyze and interpret this phenomenon of interest in the practice of foreign languages in shop names. The research was carried out in urban cities, Burao and Hargeisa. While four main streets had targeted in both cities. Face-to-face open-ended interview questions and observation were applied purposively in the study. It discovered the extensive presence of the English language on shop signs for businesses in Somaliland. However, the major factors influencing the usage of elements written in the English language include; elitism, novelty, modernity, and late fashion and attraction, informing and directing customers to business places. The relationship between buying behavior and practicing a foreign language for business shop signs is required further research.

Definition of key terms:

Shop signs: the stores’ name, not only for shops but all businesses that merchandise goods and services.

Foreign language: any language from another society that does not include the official languages of Somaliland country which constitutions allows practicing for its population.

Shop: refers to all business places; restaurants, bars, travel agencies, and any other commercial enterprise.

Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Students at Burao University

Author:  Mohamed Ahmed Kunle


The academic performance of students has been focus of the educational researchers for a long period of time, and different aspects of it have been investigated so far in the world. This study examined factors affecting the academic performance of students by considering GPA as an indicator of academic performance. The objectives of the study were to investigate the influence of gender, age, employment status, learning style preference, time management skills, test anxiety, and English communication skills. The study concentrated on the students of the University of Burao who were selected from 6 different faculties by using stratified random sampling; besides, 323 questionnaires were distributed among the students. The response rate was 71 %, so the study analyzed data obtained from only 230 of these 323 students through ANOVA, Chi-square, and Cochran-Armitage test with the help of SPSS 21. The result of this study indicated that age, gender, employment status, and time management skills have no significant effect on the student’s GPA while learning style, test anxiety, and English communications skills have a significant effect. The study identified that the students with visual learning styles have average lower GPAs than students with other learning styles (Read-Write, Aural, and kinesthetic learning styles). Furthermore, the study revealed that there is a negative relationship between test anxiety and the student’s GPA. Moreover, this study exposed that there is a significant negative relationship between English communication problems and students’ GPAs.  Based on these findings the study recommended the following points. I. Lecturers should use different lecture delivery methods so that students with different learning style preferences will understand the lesson. II. The University of Burao should come up with a policy for improving students’ English communication skills by setting an effective curriculum for English courses. III. In order for students to internalize and exercise their English language knowledge, the medium of instruction of the University should be English. IV. Test anxiety of the students should be minimized as much as possible through counseling and guidance, and students should be convinced not to be afraid of exams.

Keywords: GPA, academic performance, Gender, age, employment status, learning style preference, time management skills, test anxiety, and English communication skills.

Evaluation of the Problems Arising from Small      Ruminants Reared in Cities

A.S. Ismail and H.J. Ibrahim

1Department of veterinary medicine, 2Research and Projects office of the University of Burao.

Email: researchdep@uob-edu.net


Small ruminant production has become a common type of animal farming in urban communities whereby a considerable number of farmers tend to raise goats and sheep for different purposes in urban communities. While these farms contribute income generation in the GDP in both rural and urban communities, they also create problems for both the herders and public areas. In this regard, the research aimed to evaluate the small ruminant keeping characteristics in Burao town. Using purposive sampling, 128 small ruminant keepers were selected. In-depth interviews, structured questionnaires, and field observation were applied to identify the major problems created by these livestock in the selected communities. This study revealed a number of problems such as traffic accidents, public garden devastation, conflict between herders and their neighbors, theft, and predation. The possible sources of this announcement can be explained by letting the animal wander in the street without the supervision of the owners. Actually, the majority of the herders were female (86%) mostly illiterate, but can read the Qur’an (64%) in middle age (30-49) and they practice outdoor management systems (56.3%). According to this, the research concluded that the problems created by the rearing of small ruminants were absolutely common in the selected areas. Therefore, it is recommended that the small ruminant current management system should be changed into an indoor system. The municipality council should set appropriate regulations for small ruminants raised in cities. The research and academic institutions must assess and carry out further studies in order to set out a manual for animal owners who keep small ruminants in cities


Small ruminants: goats and sheep

Herders: animal owners

Impact of Auto-rickshaw (Bajaj): A Comprehensive Study on Positive and Negative Effects on Burao Community, Somaliland.  


Mohamed Ahmed Kunle, Mohamed Jama Farah, and Abdi /hakim Ahmed Mohamed


In Somaliland Auto-rickshaw(Bajaj) became a very popular transportation in all main cities, and now it is the choice of many citizens when it comes to speed and reaching destinations in time; however, the Burao city community is not satisfied with the service provided by Auto-rickshaw sector, and most of the community complain is about the drivers of Bajaj. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the positive and negative effects of Auto-rickshaws on Burao residents. This study was survey research, and a nonprobability sampling method was used to select participants from seven villages in Burao ( sha,ab-ka, Mohamed Ali, Plaza, Hodan Kaylo, Ukubo, German, and Sailada). A total of 175 questionnaires were distributed among Auto-rickshaw drivers, and another 18 participants were interviewed (14 Auto-rickshaw passengers, 3 hospital directors, and 1 traffic police officer). The study revealed that 100 % of Bajaj drivers are males; furthermore, the study identified that drivers generate an average gross income of Sl.sh 145,885 per day, but the per-day average net income was Sl.sh 48,274. The type of Auto-rickshaw used In Burao was designed to take 3 passengers at a time; however, according to this study, 64% of the Auto-rickshaw drivers carry 4 persons per trip, 35% carry 5 persons per trip and only 1% of the drivers carry 3 persons per trip. Furthermore, the study found that the sector has different disadvantages such as regular accidents, overspeeding, overloading, hijacking passengers, and Lack of respect for passengers and the community. On the contrary, the Bajaj sector has several advantages like quick and regular service, income generation, and cheap fare for the Burao community. Finally, this study recommends that the Ministry of motor vehicles and Transportation train Bajaj drivers in driving skills, and that traffic police set a mechanism to ensure the safety of Bajaj passengers.

Keywords: Auto-Rickshaw,Bajaj

How does social Support and self-esteem influence Students’ Academic engagement? A case study at the University of Burao

Author: Eng. Mohamed Jama Farah

Department of Engineering, civil, University of Burao




This study aimed to investigate the relationships between social support, self-esteem, and students’ academic engagement in students of the University of Burao. The study was conducted using a survey through questionnaires that were distributed to 204 students through convenience sampling. In order to determine the dimensions of self-esteem, social support, and academic engagement, descriptive statistics, correlation, and factor analysis were used. The findings indicate that there are significant positive relationships between social support, self-esteem, and students’ academic engagement.


Keywords: social support, self-esteem, academic engagement




Author: Abdihakiim   Ahmed Mohamed (Dawlad)


The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ perceptions of mathematics in secondary schools in Burao city. Four subscales were identified as anxiety, Confidence, Enjoyment, and Benefit/value of mathematics. Data collected were analyzed using Means and standard deviations. T-test was also used to examine whether there was a significant difference between public and private secondary schools towards mathematics. The results found that there were no significant differences between the perceptions of both public and private secondary schools towards mathematics. The study also found a slightly high degree of confidence in favor of private students toward learning mathematics. The findings of the study in terms of gender differences towards mathematics revealed that boys and girls generally had similar attitudes towards mathematics. The questionnaire for this study was tested for its reliability with a reliability coefficient (Cronbach alpha value) of 0.83 and the data was collected from 150 students (Boys = 80, Girls = 70) from 4 public and private secondary schools in Burao city. Principal component analyses were performed using Varimax rotation to capture Eigenvalues greater than 1, eliminate factors with loadings less than 0.4, and remove items with a non-simple factor structure.


Keywords: Perception towards mathematics, Gender, Private and Public HSS, Anxiety, Confidence, Enjoyment.

The Effect of Students’ Perceptions and Characteristics on Students’ Evaluation of Teaching: A Case of University of Burao, Somaliland.


Author: Mohamed Ahmed Kunle 



This study assessed the effect of students’ characteristics and perceptions on the students’ evaluation of teaching (SET). Students’ evaluation of teaching is a process in which the teacher’s performance is evaluated by the students. Questionnaires were distributed among 121 students of the University of Burao who were studying principles of Macroeconomics under the instruction of the same lecturer. At the end of the mid-term, students were told to evaluate their lecturer based on ten aspects of teaching; besides, the students were asked to answer some questions that were measuring seven students’ characteristics and perceptions that could affect SET. These seven perceptions and characteristics of the students were gender, age, student’s interest in the course, expected grade, student’s English level, student’s overall grade, and student’s perceptions of the SET. Out of these seven characteristics and perceptions of the students, only age affected the scores that students gave to their lecturer. However, the direction of the relationship was not clear because the result shows that on average young students and older students gave higher scores to the lecturer than those of middle age. Finally, the study recommended that SET not be considered a valid method of evaluating lecturers’ performance since other unrelated factors like age can affect the rating.


Keywords: Student perception, student characteristics, student evaluation of teaching.




Causes of Small Business Failure in Burao, Somaliland.


Author: Mohamed Ahmed Kunle


Small business failure has been a wider problem in Somaliland and particularly in Burao for years. Therefore, this study has been conducted to identify characteristics of failed small businesses and their owners and internal and external causes that contributed to their failure. This was survey research in which questionnaires were used to collect data from 200 respondents who had been owners of failed small businesses. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical tools with the help of SPSS 21. Moreover, Relative Importance Index (RII) was employed to ascertain the most significant internal and external factors that cause small business failure in Burao. The study found that the majority (66%) of owners of failed small businesses were male; moreover, the study indicated that most (53.5%) of the owners were between 25 and 45 years of age. Additionally, the study revealed that 35.5% of the owners did not have formal education, 44.5% of them were elementary, secondary, and diploma levels while 20% were bachelor’s and master’s degree levels. What is more, 45.5% of the owners had previous business experience while 54.5% of them had no previous business experience. Regarding features of failed small businesses, the study found that 74 % of the failed businesses were retailers while 24 % of them were other business types; the study found that the ages of 73.5% of the failed businesses were less than 2 years at the failure time as well. When it comes to factors that caused failure of the small businesses, the study discovered that the most powerful internal causes that contributed to failure were: 1. Lack of consultation with experienced and professional business people 2. Ineffective advertising or promotional strategy 3. Poor business site location 4. Lack of knowledge of current business situation 5. Lack of specific target market. In addition to these, the study exposed that the most significant external causes that brought small business failure were: 1. Poor economic conditions 2. High operating expenses like rent and wages 3. Higher competition. Based on the above-mentioned findings, the study has made several recommendations which have been presented in section five.



Keywords: small business, failure, and causes.

An Evaluation Of Milk Bacteriological Load Through Market Value Chain In Burao Pre-Urban Dairy Camel Farms.

Abdiweli Mohamoud Abdi and Ahmed Saeed Ismail

                                                              The University Of Burao, Faculty Of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production


The aim of this study was to evaluate camel milk bacteriological load through the market value chain in Burao pre-urban farms. Although camel milk has prized attributes, it can also be a source of nutrition for different pathogenic bacteria. 

Methodology: 24 raw milk samples were collected from different levels of the milk chain; from the udder of individual lactating camels, transportation containers, and different market centers. The bacteriological load of milk samples was investigated to determine total plate count, coliform count, spore-forming bacteria, and salmonella through bacterial culture. The physicochemical properties of the milk samples were determined by Henna digital temperature and pH meter.

Result: The mean value of TPC and cc were 8.19± .07 log (1.9X108        CFU/ml)  and 6.12± .078 log (6.1X106 CFU/ml), respectively. Different levels of the camel milk chain were investigated as udder, transport containers, and milk center containers showed; 8.16±.060 log(1.5X108 cfu/ml), 8.24±0.120 log(2.1X108cfu/ml and 8.172±0.193 log(2.1X108) tpc count, respectively. In addition to that 6.17±0.107 log (1.7X106cfu/ml), 8.24±.120 log(2.1X108cfu/ml and 6.312±0.138(2.8X106 cfu/ml) were found respectively. Only 4 out of 24 samples were salmonella positive as the overall samples showed a high level of spore-forming bacteria. The increase in cc number is an indicator of unhygienic practices during and after the post-harvesting moment. The average pH values were tested from the udder, transport containers, and milk market centers as 6.22 ±.464, 6.098±.060, and 6.15±.055 were recorded sequentially. 

Conclusion and Recommendations: 

Based on these results the level of milk bacteriological load is beyond the international standards and this may lead to public health problems. In order to improve the milk hygiene level and to ensure the safety of consumers, training for herders and sellers, pasteurization and cleaning measures should be fulfilled. Finally, to determine the improvement, further research should be conducted.

Keywords: bacteriological load, total plate count, coliform count, culture, spore-forming bacteria

Factors Affecting Attitudes Towards Ethics of Tax Evasion in Burao, Somaliland

Author: Mohamed Ahmed Kunle


 Tax revenue is an important source of government receipts without which public institutions would not perform their duties successfully. Factors that reduce tax revenue include tax evasion practices which thereby hinder the provision of public goods. This study evaluated the potential effect of seven factors on attitudes towards ethics of tax evasion of Burao taxpayers by distributing questionnaires to a sample of 350 who were selected from the Burao community. The seven independent factors were gender, age, education level, religious knowledge, confidence in the executive, confidence in the justice system, and confidence in parliament. The data were analyzed by calculating the most important descriptive statistical measures and conducting some inferential statistical tests like ANOVA, independent-sample t-test, and A Kendall’s tau-b with the help of SPSS 21. The result of this research indicated that gender, age, education level, and Islamic religious knowledge have no significant relationship with attitudes towards ethics of tax evasion. This signifies that attitudes towards ethics of tax evasion practices are not influenced by any of these four factors. On the other hand, the study revealed that confidence in the executive, confidence in parliament, and confidence in the justice system have a negative relationship with attitudes towards ethics of tax evasion practices. This implies that attitudes towards ethics of tax evasion become favorable (taxpayers are ready to pay taxes) when public confidence in these three branches of government increases. Finally, in order to reduce tax evasion in Somaliland, the study recommended the following points to be made: I. President and his ministers (executive branch) should increase the confidence that citizens have in their offices and their work by serving the public in an efficient, effective, and fair manner. The executive branch should also spend public revenue on worthy projects; furthermore, these projects must be implemented in areas where they are needed most. II. The executive branch must use all potential mechanisms that could be used to eliminate corruption as corruption is one of the factors that reduce public confidence in government. Parliament members (MPs) should serve the interest of the public by setting laws that are good for the different aspects of society, and they must oversight the executive branch’s activities. IV. The justice system of the country should be improved so as to increase public confidence in government in general and particularly in courts. This can be done by eliminating corruption in courts and ensuring that both simple cases among the citizens and criminal cases are judged fairly in the courts.


Keywords: tax evasion, tax evasion perceptions, tax evasion attitudes.


Determinants of public trust in government: A review article

Author: Mohamed Ahmed Kunle 


In Somaliland, Lower public trust in the government is a noteworthy problem that deserves to be studied and solved. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of demographic variables (gender, age, and education level); satisfaction with the quality of public services, and satisfaction with general democracy on public trust in government through reviewing literature. The study cited about thirty relevant research articles which studied how these aforementioned variables affect public trust in government, and all these research articles were conducted in different contexts. Regarding the effect of gender on public trust in government, some of the cited researchers argued that men have higher trust in government than women while others stated that men have higher trust in government compared to women, so the influence of gender on public trust in government is not clear. Similarly, the study found contradicting arguments concerning the relationship between education level and public trust in government; some researchers stated that education level affects public trust in government, but other researchers pointed out that there is a negative relationship between the two. Both arguments could be right, for highly educated people might be capable of accurately evaluating government’s performance, and thereby choose whether to trust government or not. This means those who are highly educated trust the government when it is doing well and distrust it when its performance is poor. Moreover, this study found that there is a positive relationship between the age of the citizens and public trust in government. In addition, the study identified that citizens who are highly satisfied with the quality of public services have higher trust in government than those who are not highly satisfied with the quality of public services. The study also discovered that there is a positive relationship between satisfaction with general democracy and public trust in government, and this means citizens who are satisfied with the performance of general democracy are more likely to have higher trust in government than those who are not satisfied with the performance of general democracy. Based on the above results, this research made the following recommendations: I. quality and quantity of public services must be improved to increase people’s trust in government II. Citizens must be educated so that they will be able to evaluate government’s performance accurately III. Somaliland government should uphold the basic principles of democracy such as the right to gather and demonstrate; the right to criticize the government; self-expression of values and citizen participation in politics.


Keywords: public, trust, and government

The influence of rangeland degradation on pastoral production in Togdheer region, Somaliland.

Bashir S Aden

Department of animal production and veterinary medicine. The University Of Burao. Somaliland.


The article reviewed the influence of rangeland degradation on pastoral production in the Togdheer region, Somaliland. The article described and assessed how degradation affected Somaliland pastoralism in terms of the traditional management, recurrent droughts, and overgrazing of pastoralists on rangeland in Somaliland particularly in Togdheer regions. The method of the study was a systematic review. The majority of the previous studies’ researchers concluded that rangeland degradation affected pastoral production negatively. In the end, I would suggest as the researcher to the government and other stakeholders would set up better intervention and response policies for the problem to improve pastoral production and save ecological diversity. Enclosures should be studied carefully before launching, in terms of holding animal species per Hectare, water, veterinary service intervention, and grass availability.

Keywords: rangeland degradation; assessment; pastoral production; Somaliland


Author: Saed Jama Salim


Background: Anemia is a global public health problem affecting the majority of the population of the world in both developed and developing countries with major consequences on human health as well as social and economic development. It is the world’s second leading cause of disability of the whole global disease burden. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among school-age children in primary schools in Burao, Somaliland, 2020

Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was done in four primary schools in Burao, Somaliland. Children in the age group between 6-14 years were selected and simple random sampling was used to select schools whereas systemic random sampling was used to identify children from the selected schools. Data were collected using structured interviews, anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin measurements, and stool examinations. Complete Blood Counting (CBC) was used to determine the hemoglobin status of the children. Data was entered and analyzed using  SPSS  statistical software for  Windows version  21. Anthropometric data were analyzed using WHO Anthro Plus. Bivariate logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify independent predictors of anemia in school-age children. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05

Result: A total of 285 school-age children were included in the study with a respondent rate of 93.4%. The overall prevalence of anemia was 23.1% (CI: 18.1%, 28.1%) with a mean and standard deviation of 12.7±1.59). Out of the anemic children, 20.4% were mild and 2.3% and 0.4% were moderate and severe, respectively. About 5% of the respondents had parasites on their stools. Children from illiterate mothers (AOR = 2.37; 95%CI: 1.14, 4.94), consuming organ meat less than once a week (AOR = 2.19; 95%CI: 1.05, 4.43) and having parasites on stool were identified as statistically independent associated factors of anemia in school-age children from Burao, Somaliland.

Conclusion and Recommendation: The prevalence of anemia in school-age children was a moderate public health problem in the study area. Nutrition education, iron-folic acid supplementation program, deworming, good hygiene, and sanitation are recommended.


Key Words: prevalence, associated factors, anemia, School age children, Burao

The Effect of social media on Students’ Academic Performance at The University of Burao

Mohamed Abdi Elmi                           Abdirahman Ismail Abdi 

  Faculty of ICT                                          Faculty of ICT      

       UoB                                                            UOB      

  Hassan Farah Abdi                         Abdirashid Mohamed Igeh

Faculty of ICT                                            Faculty of ICT

     UoB                                                              UoB              


The academic performance of students is an important research area on which many researchers studied throughout the world; however, in Somaliland sufficient research has not been done in this area. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine the effect of social media on students’ academic performance. The research had four specific objectives: to discover the most popular type of social media among the students, to determine the average level of time that students spend on social media daily, to ascertain the effect of time spent on social media on the academic performance of students, and to identify the influence of purpose for using social media on academic performance of students. To achieve this, a correlational research design was adopted. The study focused on the University of Burao, the population consisted of 2,500 full-time undergraduate students. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 345 students; moreover, questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages were used to analyze the demographic data while inferential statistics such as Chi-square was used to assess the relationship between the research variables. The study found that most popular social media among students are Facebook, WhatsApp, and YouTube. Furthermore, the study identified that 68% of students spend 3 hours or less on social media per day, while 32% of them spend more than three hours on social media per day. Additionally, the study indicated that time spent on social media and purpose for using social media has no significant influence on students’ academic performance.





Keywords: social media, Academic Performance, social network

Causes and Types of Orthopaedic Injuries at Burao General Hospital

Dr. Lawrence Tan                                  Dr. Hassan Doodi 

Faculty of Medicine                               Faculty of Medicine     

            UoB                                                  UoB                            

 Dr. Omer Mohamed Abdi                        Dr. Yusuf Ali Ardo

Faculty of Medicine                             Faculty of Medicine 

UoB                                                                  UoB   



Trauma, particularly resulting from motor vehicle accidents, is one of the major causes of premature mortality in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). Orthopedic staff, training, and equipment are widely recognized to be inadequate in many LMICs including Somaliland. Burao General Hospital (BGH) is a major referral center in central Somaliland, yet its orthopedic department was only established four years ago. The objectives of this study were to describe the range of orthopedic problems presented to BGH and to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of its orthopedic service. A rapid, prospective mixed methods study was performed from June to July 2022 collecting patient demographic data, conditions managed, and perceptions of hospital staff regarding the functioning of the BGH orthopedic department. 110 new patients were included in the study. They were predominantly male aged between 20-65 from an urban environment. Upper and lower limb fractures were the most common injuries. The most common aetiology of injury was road traffic accidents, overwhelmingly involving auto-rickshaws (“tigta”).  80% of orthopaedic patients in the study period received operative and/or non-operative management at BGH. Hospital staff felt the orthopaedic department was achieving good results; however, the 20% referral rate could be reduced further if adequate equipment, staff, and training were provided to improve the capacity of the orthopaedic department. Tig accidents were the cause of 47% of the injuries requiring orthopaedic management at BGH during the study period. Despite resource constraints, the orthopaedic department managed 80% of the cases, referring 20% to the hospitals in the capital city. The provision of adequate equipment, staffing, and training would reduce the referral rate and improve the quality of the orthopaedic service. Public health interventions are recommended to reduce the incidence of tig accidents in Burao. 

Keywords: Orthopaedic and Injuries

The Impact of Socio-Demographic Factors and Academic Motivation on Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students at the University of Burao.

Abdi Farah Elmi

Faculty of Education



The impact of sociodemographic factors and academic motivation on students’ performance had been of great interest among educational researchers to improve student’s achievement and the education system. The purpose of this study was to discover the effect of gender, age, employment status, academic motivation, and self-esteem on the academic performance of students. The study used a correlational research design, and data was collected from 267 students who study at the University of Burao. Moreover, a convenience sampling method was implemented to collect questionnaire data from the students. The study found that age, employment status, academic motivation, and self-esteem have no significant effect on students’ academic performance. Therefore, the study identified that only gender has a significant influence on the academic performance of students. With regard to the effect of gender on students’ academic performance, the study discovered that male students have higher academic

performance than female students. Thus, the study recommended that UoB teachers and deans of faculties give a higher priority to girls so that their academic performance can be improved.


Keywords: gender, age, employment status, academic motivation, academic performance, and self-esteem


Employability Skills of Civil Engineering Graduates in Somaliland: Employers’ and Graduates’ Perception

Abdirisak Mohamed Abdillahi                Idiris Ismail  Ibrahim

               Faculty of Engineering                    Faculty of Engineering         

                             UoB                                                UoB

Hassan Abdi Hassan

Faculty of Engineering     



The number of students graduating from universities each year is increasing in Somaliland with little or no change in the status of lack of employment in the country. Thus, it is essential to ensure that graduating students are equipped with the right skills and attributes. This study surveyed 166 civil engineering graduates of 3 public universities in Somaliland and 30 companies that work in engineering and construction on the importance of selected employability skills. It was found that Quantity take-off/ Cost Estimation, Use of CAD software, and Internship Experience are the three most crucial employability skills/attributes that a graduate should have from graduate’s perspective. Also, the Use of CAD software, Application of engineering technical knowledge, and Being self-confident are the three most crucial employability skills/attributes that a graduate should have from employers’ perspective. To understand the competency of civil engineering graduates in the employability skills analyzed in this study, a Like scale was used for measuring the perceived competency. Graduates stated to possess the following five skills/ attributes the highest; Quantity take-off/ Cost Estimation, Use of CAD software, and Ability to read technical drawings. It was discovered that employers and graduates have different viewpoints on the significance of these factors in terms of their importance in the workplace. In addition, there is a discrepancy between the factors that graduates think to be significant and the competency that they self-measure in these areas of concern. Specifically, it was revealed that there was a significant disparity in the internship experience attribute. 132 of the 166 graduates who participated in the survey rated their competency in internship experience as being either weak or very weak.

Keywords: Employability skills, Civil engineering graduates, Employers, Somaliland.

Assessment of patient satisfaction with laboratory services in Hospitals in Burao, Somaliland

Saed Jama Salim                   Abdikarin Hayan Mohamed

Laboratory Department          Laboratory Department             

            UoB                                                 UoB

Mohamed Ahmed Kunle            Bilal Ahmed Igeh

Research Directorate                     Laboratory Department             

UoB                                                                  UoB


Medical laboratory service is an essential determinant of the quality health care system and provides essential data for disease diagnosis. Satisfaction with the laboratory service is a vital indicator of a system’s performance and how clients perceive the service; therefore, every healthcare provider should keep an eye on its clients’ satisfaction. The aim of this study is to assess outpatients’ satisfaction level with laboratory service and associated factors at Burao Hospitals. A quantitative survey study design was used and a sample of 90 was taken using a single population proportion formula with a proportion of 50% with a 95% confidence level and 10% of error. Five hospitals in Burao were selected and each hospital was considered as a cluster then sample size was proportionally allocated to the hospitals and finally convenience sampling was used to select study subjects of each hospital. The questionnaire was the data collection tool which contained a demographic section and Likert scale questions to assess patient satisfaction levels. Cronbach Alpha test was used to assess the reliability of the study. Descriptive statistical analysis tools such as frequency distribution tables, measures of central tendency, and measures of dispersion were used and bivariate logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify independent predictors of level of satisfaction and associated factors of laboratory service. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. The overall satisfaction towards laboratory service was 52.2% and sex (AOR= 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.85) was the only associated factor while females were more dissatisfied than males. This study found that only nearly half of the respondents were satisfied with the hospital laboratory services while the rest were either neutral or dissatisfied. This study recommends hospital authorities and laboratory heads improve latrine cleanliness and comfort, and the time to receive laboratory results, and females should give special care since they are less satisfied according to the results.

Keywords: Patient, satisfaction, and laboratory Services

From Disruption to Reconstruction: Cultural Parameters for Academic Development at the University of Burao

Claire Urbach                           Aaron Moratz  

Postgraduate school             Research Directorate  

   UoB                                              UoB

Ahmed Muse Ismail                 Mohamed Ahmed Kunle

Postgraduate school                     Research Directorate

        UoB                                                 UoB


The development of higher education in Somaliland has been affected by major disruptions over successive decades, which have left it lagging behind that of neighboring countries. Within this context, the University of Burao (UoB) is pursuing development in various avenues including teacher training, curriculum development, research, quality assurance, and community engagement. In order to describe and analyze the ongoing process of academic development at UoB, this study uses data from focus group discussions and individual interviews with 12 UoB staff members, including teachers, heads of departments, deans, and administrators. The findings of this data are critically examined against the historical backdrop of education in Somaliland, the prevailing culture, and the skills needs of graduates. The findings include a disconnect between cultural values and formal teaching methods; a need to identify appropriate benchmarks for quality education; a need to consider gender roles, religious influence, and the economic situation when contextualizing curriculum and methodology from abroad; and opportunities for enhancing academic staff development. Recommendations are made for the ongoing pursuit of a culturally authentic tertiary education that will foster both individual development and nation-building.



Keywords: academic development, disruption, education, culture.



The role of traditional leaders in selecting candidates for parliamentary and local government elections in Burao, Somaliland

Aaron Joachim Moratz     Mohamed Ahmed Kunle 

      Research Directorate         Research Directorate        

                  UoB                                     UoB

       Abdirahman Ismail Abdi        Abdirahman Ahmed Hassan

                 Faculty of ICT         Department of Diploma Programs       

                           UoB                     Gollis University Burao


Somaliland’s political system represents a unique combination of traditional and democratic principles of governance, a fact that is made obvious by the two chambers of government, one of which consists of elected representatives while the other is made up of clan leaders. Limiting Somaliland’s hybrid democracy to this dual system, however, reaches too short. It is even in the underlying dynamics of choosing potential candidates for parliament that aspects of a traditional and modern system meet. The goal of the present research project is to uncover some of these dynamics. Our focus is on the views of clan leaders. We, therefore, interviewed six aqil (traditional clan leaders) on the choice of parliamentary candidates and analyzed their responses via coding and qualitative analysis. Emergent themes were the significance of the current political context, especially its changing nature and the relevance of the particular situation in which candidates are chosen; the make-up and logistics of the committee that chooses the candidates; the characteristics of good candidates, chief of them being knowledge, wisdom, people skills, and religious credentials; the significance of tribal dynamics in the equal sharing of power; and historical changes over the past decades. A major contribution of this paper is to bring the dynamics of the preselection process into public awareness, increase political actors’ understanding of these dynamics, and initiate a fruitful conversation between traditional leaders and political actors which, ultimately, leads to a deeper sense of appreciation of each other’s roles as well as improved cooperation in securing stability and progress in Somaliland.



Keywords: elections, role, and traditional leaders.



The Impact of Civic Education on Student’s Perception of Good Citizenship at the University of Burao

Bashe Mohamed Deria

Department of Community Development



Defining and understanding good Citizenship has turned to be one of the most interesting topics discussed in especially developing countries by policymakers and various intellectuals in recent years. Some important reasons behind this are the political, economic, cultural, and social attachments throughout every nation. The current study aims at looking at the Impact of Civic Education on Students’ Perception of Good citizenship at the University of Burao. The study applied a correlational research design, and questionnaire data were collected from 200 students at three different faculties including social science, ICT, and Medicine and Health Science by using a convenience sampling method. To analyze the data, descriptive statistical tools and Independent-Samples T-tests were exercised with the help of SPSS. The result indicated that on average, students’ perception of good citizenship was good. Moreover, the result indicated that there is no significant relationship between civic education and students’ perception of good citizenship. However, at the University of Burao, the number of students who took civics courses was very small, and this may cause their perceptions of good citizenship not to be different from those of students who did not take the civics course. The study recommended that the government create training centers for youth to learn civics education.



Keywords: good citizenship, Civic Education, and Perceptions



Livestock owners’ knowledge, attitudes, and Practices on zoonotic diseases in Togdheer, Somaliland.

Dr. Mohamed Ahmed Hassan          Mohamed Ahmed Kunle        

Postgraduate School                              Research Directorate  

         UoB                                                         UoB


Livestock is a very important asset for human beings in general and in particular for Somalis majority of whom are pastoralists. Although livestock is very vital for farm households in terms of food production and income generation, sometimes they may endanger the health of the family members by transmitting zoonotic diseases to them. Therefore, this research aimed at assessing Livestock owners’ knowledge, attitudes, and Practices on zoonotic diseases in Togdheer. The study had the following objectives: to assess the knowledge/awareness level of zoonoses among livestock owners, to discover the attitudes of livestock owners on zoonosis, to identify livestock owners’ practices on zoonosis, and to assess the animal health-seeking behavior of livestock owners. The study was survey in design and a convenience sampling method was used to collect questionnaire data from livestock owners in the Burao and Odweine districts which are included in the three districts of the Togdheer region. The sample size was 99, and it was determined by using Slovin’s formula. The Knowledge, attitude, and practices of the livestock owners were measured on a scale of  0—-100; therefore, the higher the value of the variable, the better the status of the variable. The study indicated that the average level of knowledge of the respondents on Zoonotic diseases was 65.8 which is relatively good, while the average level of attitude was 69.7 which shows that their attitudes towards Zoonotic diseases were good and favorable. The practice had the lowest average value (59.9), and this means their practices about zoonotic diseases were not highly favorable compared to their attitude and knowledge. Moreover, only 53 % of the livestock owners mentioned that they had visited veterinary clinics to treat animals in the last year; in addition, 40 % of those who visited clinics visited only one time in that last year. Therefore, the study recommends that the communication between livestock owners and veterinary doctors should be strengthened.


Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice



The impact of Youth Immigration on Agricultural production and Employment in Togdheer, Somaliland.

Jimale Sulieman Saed

Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Science



Agriculture is a major employer of the economically active population, and it supports the livelihood of approximately 25 percent of the population. However, the sector is constrained by youth immigration. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of youth immigration on agricultural production and employment. Moreover, the study had the following specific objectives: to identify the effect of youth immigration on crop production, to discover the influence of youth immigration on livestock production, and to determine the effect of youth immigration on the employment of hired labor. The study used a correlational research design and data was collected from 80 small-scale farmers in Togdheer farming areas; furthermore, the study applied a convenience sampling method. With the help of SPSS, descriptive and inferential statistical tools were employed to analyze the data. The result indicated that youth immigration has no significant effect on crop production, livestock production, and employment of hired labor.




Keywords: Youth immigration, crop production, and livestock production